The Bleeding Toad, Leptophryne cruentata, is listed as ‘Critically Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM. It is endemic to West Java, Indonesia, specifically around Mount Gede, Mount Pangaro, and south of Sukabumi. This toad is most commonly found near small creeks in the mountains. The female lays her eggs in clutches in the creeks. The Bleeding Toad’s scientific name, cruentata, is from the Latin word meaning “bleeding” because of the frog’s overall reddish-purple appearance and blood-red and yellow marbling on its back.
The population declined drastically after the eruption of Mount Galunggung in 1987. It is believed that other declining factors may be habitat alteration, loss, and fragmentation. Although the amphibian chytrid fungus has not been recorded in this area, the sudden decline in a creekside population is reminiscent of declines in similar amphibian species due to the presence of this pathogen. Only one individual Bleeding Toad was sighted from 1990 to 2003.
Part of the range of Bleeding Toad is located in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park. Future conservation actions should include population surveys and possible captive breeding plans.